Consolidating the third wave democracies

Chairman Mao also earned a reputation as an able administrator during his tenure as Minister of Education and Vice-President of the Examination Yuan.

A skilled diplomat, he has also served his country as Ambassador to the Republic of Costa Rica. from the University of Minnesota in 1987, and in his distinguished research and teaching career since then has focused on the political economy of East Asian newly-industrialized countries (NIC's), democratization, and comparative mass political behavior. Chu served for eleven years as Director of Programs at the Institute for National Policy Research in Taipei, and from 1994 until 1997 was Coordinator of the Political Science section of the National Science Council.

In political science, Third Wave Democracy, also known as Democracy's Third Wave, refers to the third major surge of democracy in history. Huntington, a political scientist at Harvard University in his article published in the Journal of Democracy and further expounded in his 1991 book The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century.

The first wave of democracy began in the early 19th century when suffrage was granted to the majority of white males in the United States ("Jacksonian democracy").

In the book ‘The Third Wave’ Samuel Huntington attempts to explain the process of democratisation in contemporary world politics as occurring in three distinct ‘waves’ beginning in the early nineteenth century and continuing into the present day.

Put simply, ‘a wave of democratisation is a group of transitions from non-democratic regimes to democratic regimes that occur within a specified period of time and that significantly outnumber transitions in the opposite direction’ (Huntington 1993: 15).



Huntington believes that the beginning of the third wave corresponds to the Helsinki Final Act of 1975, which helped secure commitments for human rights and democratic governance from Eastern European countries.In October 2014, he received the University of Minnesota's Outstanding Achievement Award, which is the highest honor bestowed upon its graduates. A specialist in the history of Chinese religion and society, his most recent books include: When Valleys Turned Blood Red: The Ta-pa-ni Incident in Colonial Taiwan; Divine Justice -- Religion and the Development of Chinese Legal Culture; and Religion in China and its Modern Fate.


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